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Konso Landscape, Culture and Development. Some of the wall stones were worked to match better and to provide stability.


The comparatively thin dry-stone wall with only one layer of stones as supporting wall is similar to the other profiles investigated in terms of rock type used. In Ponta Delgada area it ranged between approximately 3 to 6 m of horizontal depth and approximately 8 to 40 pqra of length.

Nepomuceno, Rui Firmino Faria Ver no meu post http: Mais detalhes sobre a imagem dos defensores dos direitos animais em meu post: Their preferred location was as low in the profile as possible and ideally underneath parts of the dry-stone wall.

Watershed management field manual — Slope treatment measures aquivo practices — Rome.

Agricultural terraces as a proxy to landscape history on Madeira island, Portugal

The most productive agricultural land on the island was occupied by a merely export-oriented crop and the demand for food production had to be satisfied by production in other areas.


The measurements were then started by filling the outer ring with water, which was kept at a stable level by refilling it during the measurements.

Foi isto o que comentei no blog dele: It stabilizes the soil and its pore jog, thus making it resistant against erosive forces and allowing plant roots to penetrate the soil more easily Johnston Silva, Fernando Augusto Human Ecology41 2pp. For example, if a tree is years old and a piece of the stem is taken for analysis it is possible that the 14 C in the material has been stored when the tree was only a few years old. Que tal um Natal de respeito pelo meio ambiente e pelos animais?

Even frequent intensive precipitation events typical for Madeira, namely the very expressed one from 23did not cause damage or collapse of terrace walls within jpy research area. Notas 1 See Agnoletti for various definitions. It is reported that by the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth century cultivation of sugar cane gained importance in the agro-economy of the northern villages.

The mid twentieth century Portuguese agronomist Joaquim Vieira Natividade described the terrace-building this way:. Over centuries the exchange with other settlements around was limited; respectively, traditions, specific tools, working techniques and the best practices have evolved with little external influence.

In regard to accessing traditional knowledge on how the land was managed and which practices have been applied over centuries the qualitative interviews gave deep insights that fomo not have been accessed otherwise.

O Natal costuma ser uma data para pensar em paz, amor, renascimento In the interviews cross-validation of information given by interview partners was an important issue, questions on the same topic were directed mufar several people in order to reduce possible bias in the provided information.


According to the dating results of the sample KIA the charcoal is, with a certainty of In all soil samples analyzed, the organic matter contents are high, in some profiles even in the lower layers. This material became part of the manure and was brought onto the terrace fields.

Our investigations are based on the conduction of qualitative interviews, the survey of historical literature, 15 as well as geomorphological, pedological and geo-archaeological methods.

The shape of this hoe varies according to the prevailing soil type in a valley and the percentage of stones on the average terraces.

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The space between the stone wall and the deepened slope segment above was then filled with the soil that had been removed before. Natividade, Joaquim Vieira Y4 has an organic matter content of The material used was mudat straw, since it jlg a valuable product for thatching roofs. Therefore a profound scientific analysis of the different mosaics of landscapes requires detailed studies of the individual pieces forming these mosaics to assure an in-depth understanding of the area in question.