Dressel 1to 6: wine amphoras; Dressel 1: Roman wine amphora, B.C. to 13 A.D.; Dressel 2: Roman wine amphora, 16 B.C. to 29 A.D.; Dressel 3: Roman. An amphora is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least .. The first type of Roman amphora, Dressel 1, appears in central Italy in the late 2nd century BC. This type had thick walls and a characteristic red . Distinctive Features. This was the most common type of late Republican Roman amphora. Following an early classificatory scheme by Lamboglia (), the.
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With one exception, the bifid figure-of-eight handle sherds have separated into their component rods. As we have seen, the question can be answered for Heybridge; the Dressel 1 amphoras represent a brief period of importation, on a scale, moreover, rarely found in Britain.
They are most often ceramicbut examples in metals and other materials have been found. Exports of wine from Tarraconensis were in decline in the second half of the 1st century AD Corsi-Sciallano and Liou There were no Iron Age imports of Gaulish wine at Elms Farm, and the identity of the sherds as Gauloise 4 is not in doubt.
vressel Painted amphorae were also used for funerary purposes, often in special types such as the loutrophoros. This is a pattern typical of Britain as a whole Williams and Peacockwith the notable exception of London, where there was a slackening of Dressel 20 imports under Hadrian and in the early Antonine period Davies et al.
If we assume these three came from maphora vessels to the forty-four reported here, Heybridge has produced forty-seven Dressel 1 dressdl. This is not to deny that we can see a typological development within Dressel 1, but no detailed scheme for Dressel 1 metrology has yet been developed to allow the allocation of excavated sherds to one or other of the traditional variants Dressel 1a, 1b and 1c on an objective measurable basis that enjoys widespread support in the scientific community.
Sherds from the same amphora could be burnt and unburnt, suggesting the amphoras had been leant upright against the pyre. The first systematic classification of Roman amphorae types was undertaken by the German scholar Heinrich Dressel.
Amphorae and the Roman economy: The site cannot therefore tell us anything about where these amphoras had entered the country. The celebrated list of British exports in Strabo 4. Roman amphorae were wheel-thrown terracotta containers. At first sight, the sherd count and sherd weight data dreseel that imports of the form were at their height in Ceramic Phase 3 but this masks a far more interesting picture in which wine imports to Heybridge actually declined dramatically in that period.
The Dressel 1 is sometimes stamped on the rim and very occasionally on the neck. There are two main types of neck amphorae:. Dressel was present in Ceramic Phase 1 c.
Dressel 1b is the most common variant in the south-east, indicating its initial arrival after the mid-1st century BC. In the Tarraconensis region the Pascual 1 was the most common type, a wine amphora shaped on the Dressel 1, and imitations of Dressel A stamp usually was applied to the amphora at a partially dry stage.
On the Adriatic coast drsssel older types were replaced by the Lamboglia 2 type, a wine amphora commonly produced between the end of the 2nd and the 1st century BC. Antica anfora romana vinaria, di tipo Dressel B1.
No less than fourteen inscriptions record aminneumwine made from the aminneum grape. Comparison with sites in Belgic Gaul Haselgrove, on the amhora of the number of amphoras per hectare, shows that Dressel 1 was less common here than there. Dressel 20 rims can be dated on the basis of their typology by reference to the indispensable charts published by Martin-KilcherBeilagen Help sustain cressel support dreszel access publication by donating to our Open Access Archaeology Fund.
One of the main sources of supply to Britain was apparently the Cadiz region Peacock Mindful of the scale of the excavations, one might have expected more to have been discovered. Another special type is the Panathenaic prize amphorawith black-figure decoration, dgessel exclusively as prize vessels for the Panathenaia and retaining the black-figure technique for centuries after the introduction of red-figure vase painting. Two principal types of amphorae existed: Handle typology varies widely from vessel to vessel, which was helpful when the minimum number of vessels was established, and as many handles as possible have been illustrated.
AD 25 is the best estimate of its terminal date Martin-Kilcher Such expatriates would not only have enjoyed wine themselves but would have known how to put it to good use among the Britons.
Description Amphora Dressel 1B. Other types from the eastern Mediterranean Gazasuch as the so-called Late Roman 4, became very popular between the 4th and the 7th century AD, while Italic productions ceased. Distribution Very common in the western Mediterranean amphors, especially the coasts of southern France, Spain and Lusitaniawhere all variants are found in very great numbers Panella, ; Tchernia, ; Fitzpatrick, ; Will, b; Poux, The necks of pithoi are wide for scooping or bucket access.
The ultimate destination of these amohora may have been the Roman armies based in Gallia Belgica and the Rhineland, or beyond. A port need leave no archaeological trace of the commodities or containers that pass through it: Most amphora fabrics were identified by hand lens; occasional use was also made of a binocular microscope.
From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. A concentration of finds in the Cosa region and their rarity in southern Italy indicates production in southern Etruria.
amlhora Even across the Thames in Kent, Dressel 1 amphoras are noticeably less common Hull and Hawkes The form was identified on the basis of a neck sherd with horizontal furrowing and a handle with oval section rising from the upper end of the neck Figureno.
Some potteries were still making the form there as late as the early 3rd century AD Freed One of the ampbora why Dressel replaced Dressel 1 in Italy was its greater efficiency as a mode of trade packaging.
The most common types were all produced in Baetica and among these there were the Dressel 20, a typical olive oil rressel, the Dresselfor garum fish sauceand the Haltern 70, for defrutum fruit sauce. It is conceivable that the disruption of the Iron Age trade patterns that had sustained Heybridge before the invasion contributed to its marginalisation.