Рис. spirale f d ́Ekman s espiral f de Ekman g Ekman-Spirale f El Niño; southern oscillation The abnormal warming of ocean water off the west coast of. Vagn Walfrid Ekman Category:Ekman spiral cawiki Espiral d’Ekman; dewiki Korkenzieherströmung; enwiki Ekman spiral; eswiki Espiral de Ekman; etwiki. elbow EHT~; – rectffier u TV válvula rectificadora de MAT/; – supply n rv spiral n OCEAN espiral de Ekman m elaeolite n MINERAL eleolita / nefelma.
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To help him make a mathematical model of these movements, Ekman used the observations that Fridtjof Nansen made while frozen into the Arctic sea ice. The force from above is in red espirap with the wind blowing over the water surfacethe Coriolis force which is shown at right angles to the force from above when it should in fact be at right angles to the actual water flow is in dark yellow, and the net resultant water movement is in pink, which then becomes the force from above for the layer below it, accounting for the gradual clockwise spiral motion as you move down.
Walfrid Ekman who first described the spiral in He did this on purpose. Ekman spirals are also found in the atmosphere. Ocean water at the surface moves at an angle to the wind, and the water under the surface water turns a bit more, and the water below that turns even more. The net effect of the rotating water B is movement at right angle to the wind direction. But he did have lots of time to make observations of the environment. As a work of the U.
The example shown above is for the Northern Hemisphere. You are here Home. The deflection of surface currents was first noticed by the Norwegian oceanographer Fridtjof Nansen during the Fram expedition — and the effect was first physically explained by Vagn Walfrid Ekman. Please verify that this file is suitable for Commons before transferring it. This is due both to the fact that the turbulent mixing ekamn the surface layer of the ocean has a strong diurnal cycle and to the fact that surface waves can espirao the Ekman spiral.
Moving files to Commons for details. Because the Earth rotates, surface water moves to the right of the wind direction in the Ekmn Hemisphere and to the left of the wind direction in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect. The classic Ekman spiral has been observed under sea ice,  but observations remain rare in open-ocean conditions.
An explorer from Norway named Fridtjof Nansen froze his ship into the Arctic sea ice in Retrieved from ” https: Common to several of these observations spirals were found to be ‘compressed’, displaying larger estimates of eddy viscosity when espidal the rate of rotation with depth than the eddy viscosity derived from considering the rate of decay of speed.
He thought that trapped in sea ice, which moves with ocean currents, he would get to the North Pole eventually. This surface current drags on the water layer below it, applying a force in its own direction of motion to that layer, repeating the process whereby that layer eventually becomes a steady current even further to the right of the wind, and so on ewpiral deeper layers of water, resulting espital a continuous rotation or spiraling of current direction with changing depth.
The effect is a consequence of the Coriolis effect which subjects moving objects to an apparent force wspiral the right of their direction of motion in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
For three years, Nansen and his ship drifted through the Arctic. As wind blows across the ocean, it moves water because of friction at the ocean surface. The diagram above attempts to show the forces associated with the Ekman spiral as applied to the Northern edpiral.
This file was suggested for transfer by a bot User: Summary [ edit ] http: Thus, when a persistent wind blows over an extended espirak of the ocean surface in the northern hemisphere, it causes a surface dspiral which accelerates in that direction, which then experiences a Coriolis force and acceleration to the right of the wind: Any user may perform this transfer; refer to Wikipedia: The Ekman spiral and Ekman transport are named for Swedish scientist V.
As the flow is now somewhat right of the wind, the Coriolis esprial perpendicular to the flow’s motion is now partly directed against the wind. This file is a candidate to be copied to Wikimedia Commons. Articles with short description. File mover What files should be renamed? The first documented observations of an oceanic Ekman spiral were made in the Arctic Ocean from a drifting ice floe in As depth increases, the force transmitted from the driving wind declines and thus the speed of the resultant steady current decreases, hence the tapered spiral representation in the accompanying diagram.
Retrieved from ” https: Modelling the mixed layer response”.
All free media Wikipedia orphaned files Espirxl with no machine-readable description Files with no machine-readable author Files with no machine-readable source. Archived from the original on It was moving consistently to the right of the wind direction. Journal of Physical Oceanography. If this file is freely licensed, but otherwise unsuitable for Commons e.
A structure of currents or emkan near a horizontal boundary in which the flow direction rotates as one moves away from the boundary.
Pages on other projects are not listed. This image is a work espirql a sailor or employee of the U. The average direction of all this turning water is about a right angle from the wind direction.