provide extensive information about FM ( ). : Military Petroleum Pipeline Systems (FM ) ( ) by Department of the Army and a great selection of similar New , Used and. This manual, “Military Petroleum Pipeline Systems (FM ),” provides the fundamentals of planning and construction of military petroleum.
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As liquid starts to flow down the pipe, it loses static head but gains velocity and dynamic head. Obstacles can greatly increase the construction effort of a pipeline. A more exact method of determining friction head loss and the energy relationship for liquid flowing through a pipe between two points can be calculated by the Darcy-Weisbach and Bernoulli equations Appendix A.
From this point Bi, draw a line on the profile parallel to the hypotenuse of the hydraulic gradient triangle. The engineer units normally assigned to the ENCOM to construct petroleum facilities are the- Engineer construction group. Normally 10 to 12 soldiers are required, including equipment operators. The split-leak clamp Tigurepage consists o f a saddle, a g asket, and stirrups that fit around the pipe where it leaks.
Contaminated-fuel- module layout Figure In FigureStep 2, page the scale F to G is the safe-working -pressure scale for 6-inch standard pipe 0.
Since there is no counteracting friction loss from fuel flow to use up or offset the static head, the total static pressure caused by the elevation difference is exerted against the pipe and the valve, which stops the flow. Other means of delivery, such as tank vehicle, barge, and aircraft, will be incorporated into the system, as required. Revisions may be necessary because 5482 tactical developments, losses in handling capacity due to enemy action, and other factors that keep the system from operating as planned.
A pipeline usually follows the most direct 5-428 possible from source to demand. Standards for pipeline welds B Figure B The coupling and gasket are designed to seal under pressure and vacuum. Relocation upstream is the best choice because the only effect on operations is an increase in suction pressure over the normal 20 psi.
This set is an ordnance item of issue and is used primarily for minor maintenance or replacement of external accessories of pumping unit engines. If this occurs, the pumping station should gm shifted upstream or downstream to a better site on the pipeline. FM Chapter One.
Suggested stake colors Table During shutdown, the total static pressure applied may be well above the safe working pressure, especially at low sections in the line. These valves are placed in the line at the bottom of steep upgrades to prevent backflow in case of shutdowns.
Using the feet-to-head scale for the aluminum pipe D to Eprepared according to Step 2 above, locate the point on the profile where the pressure drops below the safe working pressure of the aluminum pipe tubing by moving the scale along the new hydraulic fk based on standard pipe. Pioneer hand tools and standard table s of organization and equipment TOE earth-moving equipment are used to clear and level the right-of-way for pipelines and to prepare pumping station and tank-farm sites.
If the gate protrudes partially into the pipe, it may be so abraded by dirt and scale in the fuel flow that it will no longer serve as a tight valve when closed. It contains all of the tools required for operator maintenance and repair of the standard pumping units and the 4- 6- and 8-inch pumping-station manifolds.
This set contains the tools and equipment needed to construct and maintain steel-coupled-type pipelines and pumping-station manifolds. This permits the controlled launching and receiving of scrapers cleaners or pigs in each pipeline segment for purging and vm the line as well as phase separation in certain operations.
Time, space, distances, terrain, existing resources, requirements, and operating environment are planning factors.
This set is essential when using any welded-pipeline tool set described in Appendix B b. This pressure is 20 cm at normal elevations and temperatures. Pipeline failure has serious consequences. Locating a pressure-reducing station g. The coupling and gasket are designed to seal under pressure and vacuum. The dual strainer installation allows for continuous protection even if one strainer is being cleaned or repaired.
In manifold systems, a rising-stem valve is included in gate valve sections with an overall length of 36 inches. A socket-wrench handle and wrench sockets to fit all grooved-type fmm nuts in the 4- 6- and 8-inch pumping-station manifolds.
When using snap-joint couplings, the crew consists of a crew leader, gasket greaser, front stabber, back stabber, coupler, coupler’s helper, and a pinman. The group’s headquarters develops requirements for petroleum-handling equipment, facilities, construction, 5-48 petroleum units needed to develop, operate, and maintain the system.
Bulk-Fuel Distribution System These areas are the transfer points of components from the foot low-bed trailer to the bolster trailers and the 5-ton cargo trucks. An important element in the design of a military pipeline system is pumping-station spacing.
If a station fails to maintain flow at normal pressures, you can loop the line, or you can use larger pipe for a suitable distance on the downstream side of the pumping station to reduce friction loss mf an amount that will permit it to pump at the design rate.
Construction equipment access, terrain, obstacles, and pipeline trace camouflage are the key factors in determining the best construction route. Bulk-Fuel Storage Facilities A receiver assembly is installed upstream of each pumping station and at the end of the line. Construction forms Figure 55-482 may have to use trucked-in fuel. Most mainline pumping-station kits include two pumping units to facilitate a hour operation. If these valves are available, using them is the best and easiest method of controlling excessive pressure.