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Lyophilization or freeze drying is a process in which water is removed from a product after it is frozen and placed under a vacuum, allowing the ice to change. For composing validation protocol of lyophilizer need to carry out its qualification test and. decide acceptance criteria. So during selection of. Hi all, I have a question regarding an OQ of a freeze dryer. Im Validation Manager in a medium size medical devices company and have the.

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Lower temperatures are required to freeze and condense solvents and they can easily bypass the condenser and end up causing damage to the vacuum pump.

In most cases, the more dry the product, the longer its lyophilize life will be. If renting bendable units, then they can be verified in our dry block temperature baths. John Barley, SP Scientific. Secondary drying is continued until the product has acceptable moisture content for long term storage. We offer these with Rigid and Bendable probes.

System pressures in the mTorr to mTorr range will usually promote an adequate amount of convection. About Our Trusted Brands. Because of the lack of control over the rate of heat transfer into the product, most manifold dryers are operated conservatively at lower pressures to help keep the product temperature lower.

Lyophilization and freeze drying are terms that are used interchangeably depending on the industry and location where the drying is taking place. A recommended approach is to first set the system pressure using the vapor pressure of ice table.

Freeze Drying / Lyophilization Information: Basic Principles

These can be placed inside of your autoclave. In shelf freeze dryers, the condenser can be located inside the product chamber internal condenser or in a separate chamber external condenser connected to the product chamber by a vapor port. Additional primary drying endpoint determination tools are available on larger freeze dryers equipped with advanced process control systems.


Condenser cooling rates are for information only. With little control over heat flow into the product, it is more difficult to control the process.

All three methods of heat transfer – conduction, convection and radiation, must be considered when freeze drying a product. When this pressure rise approaches zero, no more water vapor is being generated via sublimation.

Headquartered in Warminster, Pennsylvania, SP Industries has production facilities in the USA and Europe and offers a world-wide sales and service network with full product support including training and technical assistance.

Purified Water System OQ. When the super-cooled liquid finally freezes, it happens extremely quickly resulting in smaller ice crystals. Control systems vary in complexity and usually include temperature and pressure sensing ability.

The most common product containers are flasks, vials and trays. With simple manifold freeze dryers, the product is placed in a vial or flask depending on quantity, and then frozen in a separate piece of equipment.


It is best not to freeze a large block of sample in the bottom of a flask because the sample will be too thick for efficient water removal. The refrigeration system can also be employed to cool shelves in the product chamber for the freezing of the product. Shelf temperature accuracy and uniformity testing.

Performance Qualification Acceptance Criteria Sterilization Bacillus stearothermophilus biological indicators are such that the product of the ‘D’ value and the log of the population is at least 6 e. The Vacuum System is tested by determining the blank-off pressure, pump ultimate pressure and leak-up rate. Freeze drying can be a multi-day process.

This regulation requires certain standards of process control and security.


SP Scientific service professionals offer your organization a depth of expertise that is truly unique to our selected industries and markets. SP Scientific is constantly striving for superior service and quality. Larger ice crystals improve the speed of the freeze drying process because of the larger vapor pathways left behind in the dried portion of the product as the ice crystals are sublimated.

Freeze drying is the removal of ice or other frozen solvents from a material through the process of sublimation and the removal of bound water molecules through the process of desorption.

When the product temperature equals the shelf temperature, it can be inferred that primary drying is complete. Product chambers are typically either a manifold with attached flasks, or, a larger chamber with a system of shelves on which to place the product.

Verifying rigid units needs to take place in a liquid bath. Hydrocarbon levels on swabs should not exceed the negative control.

These products can benefit from a thermal treatment process, which is also called annealing.

OVERVIEW Freeze drying is the removal of ice or other frozen solvents from a material through the process of sublimation and the removal of bound water molecules through the process of desorption. During qualificaton drying, the system pressure and the shelf temperature are set and controlled in combination to yield the appropriate product temperature. SP’s products support research and production across divers end user markets including pharmaceutical, scientific research, qualifiaction, aeronautic, semiconductor and healthcare.

With manifold freeze drying, the process is driven by the system pressure set point and the ambient temperature in the room.